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- Kinga Kosmala, University or college of Chicago (term ends Dec 2019)
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Honoring the Chopin Year
Editorial by Maria Ould – Harley
The 150th anniversary from the death of Fryderyk Chopin, Poland’s recognized greatest composer, has been recognized with a large number of scholarly and artistic events through the year 1999 – named The Chopin Year by UNESCO. The Second Intercontinental Chopin Congress in Warsaw, Poland; the Age of Chopin seminar in Bloomington, Indiana; the Chopin Forum in London; as well as the International Chopin Symposium in Dusseldorf had been designed to bring together scholars and researchers to re-examine the achievements with the great the composer in wide cultural contexts. The amount of commemorative occasions has been thus large the Polish Ministry of Lifestyle and Disciplines established an exclusive office specialized in coordinating the festivities throughout every season. This kind of abundance of lectures, guides, conferences and festivals police warrants a duplication of a brief review made by Karol Szymanowski inside the opening of his 1923 article in Fryderyk Chopin: How much we certainly have written, spoken and seriously considered Fryderyk Chopin! How various colorful, rhetorical wreaths have been placed for his foot! Yet the inquiries surrounding his work continue to remain unresolved. Szymanowski’s statement have not lost it is validity before seventy years during which the public image of Chopin has usually and dramatically changed.
Account of Chopin from a bronze platter.Gloss Music Collection, USC.
The 1999 volume of thePolish Music Journalattempts to check the questions surrounding Chopin’s work, inches especially because discussed inside the English-speaking community, with issues raised by scholars whom are either based in Biskupiec, poland, or generate Chopin’s framework in Shine culture a focal point of their analysis. The articles chosen to get the present concern represent a variety of methodological approaches. When Dr . Halina Goldberg (Visiting Helper Professor, Indianapolis University) and Dorota Zakrzewska (Ph. D. candidate in musicology, McGill University, Montreal) received their Wilk Prizes for Analysis in Polish Music (in the 98 competition; Goldberg – Professional Reward; Zakrzewska – Student Prize), I realized that the juxtaposition of their content articles in the summer 1999 issue in theGloss Music Recordrequired more versions on the same theme. I accompanied these text messaging with input by Doctor Andrzej Tuchowski (Associate Mentor of Music Theory on the Pedagogical University, Zielona Góra, and at the University of Wrocław, Poland), Dr . January Węcowski (editor-in-chief, music journals of the Farrenheit. Chopin School of Music, Warsaw, Poland), and Prof. Douglas Hofstadter (professor of computer technology and cognitive science, adjunct professor of philosophy, mindset, comparative books, and the background philosophy of science in Indiana School; in 1999/2000 visiting professor of physics and Slavic literature at Stanford University).
Dr . Goldberg’s study of Chopin in Warsaw’s beauty parlors presents a segment of her tragique dissertation showcasing aspects of Enhance musical life not recently known in the West. As a result of her thorough study of archival material, early on 19th 100 years publications and documents, the image of Warsaw changes by a regional, backwater city to a modern, highly-cultured town. Warsaw’s sophisticated inhabitants took part in a wide range of musical events (public and private); these people were aware of the newest musical styles. It is exactly this ethnic milieu that allowed Chopin to become the person he was in Paris, to aid him enter in and conquer the beauty parlors of French aristocracy. The scholarly solidity of Goldberg’s historical way is in conjunction with a exciting method of business presentation. Colorful, vivid language brands also the article by Dorota Zakrzewska, a doctoral student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. After completing her M. A. thesis in Chopin (the present document is a selection of material out of this project), she’s planning to spend her Ph. D. dissertation to Karol Szymanowski’sKing Roger. Within an extended, in the event that somewhat risky, survey of relationships among Chopin and Mickiewicz, Chopin’sBalladesand Mickiewicz’s literary works, especially hisBallady, Zakrzewska presents us which has a host of details about the alienation and powerlessness knowledgeable by the Great Emigration of Polish intelligentsia who satisfied in Paris, france after the fall of the The fall of Uprising (1831). non-etheless, Zakrzewska’s putting on one narrative schema distilled from Mickiewicz’s poetic ballades (the subject of the last part of her study) is definitely, like all the other attempts in discovering thorough homologies among music and literature, destined to remain controversial.
Equally disputable, and extremely interesting just for this very explanation, is the study of Polish Religious Folklore in Chopin’s Music by simply Dr . By Węcowski (Warsaw). I initially encountered echoes of this function while selecting the Polish composer Henryk Mikołaj Górecki in April 1998 in Katowice, Belgium. Górecki evaded my 1st question about his individual music with an outburst of eagerness directed at Węcowski’s research:
Węcowski proves that Chopin utilized Polish religious songs in his works…. This research alterations everything. The whole image of Chopin was false. Have you any idea what a tragic figure Chopin was, exactly what a university tragic person?… If the method to obtain his songs is in Enhance church songs, the tracks that have text messaging, that discuss something, everything changes… These types of songs are generally not like several little people mazurkas! Below, Chopin returns to the foundation, to the origins from which everything grows…. To me it is a Chopin Revolution!… It is a revolution since here our company is dealing with the whole mystery of Chopin’s compositional workshop, of Chopin’s musicand he was this kind of a wizard! That he was a guru is clear, but geniuses do not come out of nowhere. You may have a good ear canal, a good memory, this and that. But something more important is needed that you can become really yourself. inches
Interested in the quality of research that could generate such eagerness from this fonder (inclined to strong and quite often harsh judgements), I requested a copy of Dr . Węcowski’s paper for its possible newsletter in thePolish Music Journal. It appears in this article without editorial interventions, since received and translated simply by Barbara Milewski. Dr . Węcowski’s expertise has previously centered on Polish early music and religious folk traditions. During each of our conversations, this individual assured myself that the present venture into the field of Chopin research is just a commencing of an extensive research project. In accordance to Węcowski, the instances of parallels between passages by Chopin’s parts and nineteenth century religious songs inside the vernacular that he accumulated for his article are merely the suggestion of the iceberg. I present this thesis to our readers hoping that the on the net format with theLogwill certainly encourage a lively debate.
In the next article-length contribution to theRecord, Andrzej Tuchowski examines one of Chopin’s methods of large-scale pitch organization and its reminiscences in afterwards works by Szymanowski and Lutosławski. Tuchowski is now a teacher of music theory in the Academy of Music in Zielona Góra. I have attained him like a fellow individual in the Important Seminar in Music Theory and Evaluation directed by of Prof. Zofia Helman of the Start of Musicology, University of Warsaw (1985-1988). The Seminar meetings were hosted in the salon of the house donated to the School of Warsaw by the past due Prof. Zofia Lissa: a family house – art gallery, with her library continue to intact (sadly, it was marketed off lately – plus the library dispersed – by the University, mired with limited financial resources). In 1986-88, Tuchowski commuted to Warsaw from Zielona Góra, to read chapters of his dissertation-in-progress on symbolism in Britten’s operas. This feuille later gave rise to 2 books, but during Helman’s seminar it was discussed with an intense and zealous criticism of the youthful minds, fearless and reluctant to compromise. Helman, a student of Lissa, stimulated these kinds of discussions as a method of designing a capacity for impartial, critical thinking by her students. Thus, she belonged to the great intellectual tradition represented in the U. S. by Hannah Arendt whose teaching method was described by simply Elisabeth Young-Bruehl in the subsequent words: Her reassurance was generous, and her criticism was delivered with the respectful, in the event harsh, presumption that anyone that could not accept it well should not continue under her tutelage. inches
It might be amazing that rather than praising Tuchowski’s original, post-Schenkerian analytical approachfreely borrowing ideas from Reti, Schenker and Salzer, and permeated along with his own concepts and terminologyI have digressed into a memory space of the workshop at the threshold of his academic profession. This gesture could be found, perhaps, as being a sign of my nostalgia for the idealized past, similar to the one which the Parisian emigre circles had preached and used in 1830s. My goal, however , is always to connect Tuchowski with another participant in Prof. Helman’s seminar in 1980s, Małgorzata Gąsiorowska, in whose recent monograph on Grażyna Bacewicz is reviewed here by Alicja Usarek (D. M. A candidate, University of Texas). Gąsiorowska’s book was published by PWM to honor the double birthday of Poland’s greatest girl composer (90th of her birth and 30th of her death). The publication began while Gąsiorowska’s Ph level. D. job within the circumstance of Helman’s Seminar in Music Theory and Appearance. However , the dissertation remained unfinished; the author’s involvement with the Shine Radio and her various other duties delayed the completion of her function until 99. From my own reading, theBacewiczmonograph benefited from the long pregnancy and earned to have recently been so desperately awaited: its scope and treatment of the niche transcend all the previous initiatives in this discipline. We should keep in mind that the season 1999 has also been declared in Poland The Bacewicz 12 months, as a result, it is fitting to have Gąsiorowska’s scholarly homage to Bacewicz at least noticed in the U. T.
Finally, to come back to the musicology of The Chopin Season, I am hoping that the scope of methodologies and themes of the articles published in this article will attest to the vitality of the discipline, continually rampacked by the perspectives of young scholars and by the information of their more mature colleagues with arrived in the field of Chopin studies from distinct musicological orientations. The range of ways to Chopin’s music and receptionas revealed by articles inside theRecordis further improved by the addition of a hilarious review of Chopin’s Mayonnaises simply by Douglas Hofstadter. This parody of music criticisma laJames Huneker is permeated with key phrases that take those tone found in Huneker’s writings to a different level. Regarding the mazurkas, Huneker mentioned the following: Like hardy, basic, wild flowers they are mainly for oustside, the only out-of-door music Chopin ever made. Nevertheless even in the open, and under the moon, the note of self-torture, of sophisticated sadness is certainly not absent…. They can be creatures of moods, melodic air-plants, swinging to the rhythm of virtually any vagrant piece of cake…. Within the tremulous spaces with this miniature boogie is enacted the play of the man soul, a soul that voices the revolt and sorrow of a dying race, of a dying poet. inches Hofstadter’s Huneker-style dissertation amuses whilst indirectly raising some serious questions about the limits and abuses of descriptive language in musicology (an concern as current now, as ever before before). I actually am pleased to be able to present this pleasurable text to the readers.
In conclusion, it might be interesting to seem ahead and to note that the first issue of the 2000 volume of thePolish Music Logis going to focus on the transformations of Chopin’s design examined with a group of Gloss scholars in whose contributions premoere appearance in Polish in 93, in a amount of studies entitledPrzemiany Stylu Chopina[Transformations of Chopin’s Style]. Prof. Maciej Gołąb, the manager of this quantity, kindly opted for serve as the guest editor of thePolish Music Journalvol. several, no . you, and to decide on a sample of representative content from his book to get translated and issued in this article. The articles or blog posts will be accompanied by several testimonials of catalogs on Chopin.
Recent Chopin literature in Poland poses problems that could possibly be somewhat totally different from those asked in the West. Here, as in modern-day interpretative studies of music in general, far more concerns are raised than responded. This comment, taken from Agnes Heller’sA Theory of Modern quality, causes the philosopher’s statement that it is easier to answer inquiries than to leave them wide open. The articles by Goldberg, Zakrzewska, Tuchowski, Węcowski, andpartlyHofstadter, perform leave a few questions open and focus on lacunae to be filled by further analysis. Chopin remains to be the focus of intense talks and re-evaluations while the omnivorous culture continues to feed on unlimited meaning. I would like to finish this preface with a prolonged quotation via Szymanowski’s 1923 essay (cited above) reflecting on one of the controversial concerns, i. electronic. Chopin’s doppelwertig position between the nationwide and the common. Szymanowski concluded his examination of Chopin’s artistry fantastic stature in Polish music by saying:
Chopin had an uncommon, objective and secure wisdom, which is a characteristic of those who fearlessly abandon the areas which experienced already been discovered a thousand moments over, realms which are predictable and not harmful with any revelations, royaume where traditional aestheticism propagates like a awful habit and new ideas are quickly labeled as fashionable trends. Only today – from the distance of almost a century… simply today it is also possible to fully have an understanding of his incredible meaning in the evolution from the universal music…. Chopin acknowledged that only simply by setting his art free from the dramatic and historic content can he guarantee the preservation of the truly Enhance character and endow that with the many lasting values. Such an method to the question of national musicwhich in his own art proved to be a cerebrovascular accident of geniusmade his compositions widely accessible far over and above Polish edges… and enhanced his music to the category of the common art.
University of California in Berkeley
In 60, Miłosz was offered a posture as a going to lecturer on the University of California by Berkeley. With this provide, and with the local climate of McCarthyism abated, having been able to go on to the United States. He turned out to be an successful and well-liked teacher, and was offered tenure following only 8 weeks. The rarity with this feat, and the degree where he had impressed his co-workers, are underscored by the reality Miłosz was missing both a PhD and teaching knowledge. Yet his deep learning was evident, and after numerous years of working management jobs that he found stifling, he reported to friends that he was in the element in a > With steady employment as a tenured Professor of Slavic Languages and Literature, Miłosz was able to safeguarded American citizenship in 1962 and purchase a home in Berkeley.
Miłosz began to publish educational articles in English and Polish over a variety of creators, including Fyodor Dostoevsky. Yet , despite his successful changeover to the U. S., this individual described his early years by Berkeley because frustrating, when he was separated from friends and seen as a political figure rather than a great poet person. (In truth, some of his Berkeley faculty colleagues, unacquainted with his imaginative output, expressed astonishment when he won the Nobel Prize. ) His poetry was not accessible in English, and he was not able to publish in Poland.
Within an effort to introduce American readers to his poetry, as well as to the effort of his fellow Enhance poets, Miłosz conceived and edited the anthologyPostwar Gloss Poetry, which was posted in The english language in 1965. It is credited by simply American poets like W. S. Merwin, and American scholars just like Clare Cavanagh, with having a profound impact. For many English-language readers, it had been their initial exposure to Miłosz’s poetry, plus the work of Polish poets like Wisława Szymborska, Zbigniew Herbert, and Tadeusz Różewicz. (In precisely the same year, Miłosz’s poetry likewise appeared in the first issue ofModern Poems in Translationa great English-language journal founded by prominent literary figures Allen Hughes and Daniel Weissbort. The issue as well featured Miroslav Holub, Yehuda Amichai, Ivan Lalić, Vasko Popa, Zbigniew Herbert, and Andrei Voznesensky. ) In 1969, Miłosz’s textbookA brief history of Enhance Literature, was posted in The english language. He then implemented this which has a volume of his own operateChosen Poems(1973), some of which he translated into English himself.
Simultaneously, Miłosz extended to publish in Polish with an émigré press in Paris. His poetry selections from this period includeKing Popiel and Other Poetry(1962)Bobo’s Metamorphosis(1965)City With out a Name(1969), andFrom the Rising with the Sun(1974).
During Miłosz’s period at Berkeley, the grounds became a hotbed of student protest, notably since the home with the Free Talk Movement, that can be credited with helping to define a technology of scholar activism throughout the United States. Miłosz’s romantic relationship to pupil protestors was sometimes bloodthirsty: he referred to as them spoiled children of the bourgeoisie, and deemed all their political passion nae. In one grounds event in 1970, he mocked protestors whom claimed to be demonstrating to get peace and love: Talk to me regarding love after they come into your cell 1 morning, collection you all up, and say ‘You and you, stage forwardit’s your time and energy to dieunless any of your good friends loves you so much this individual wants to consider your place! ‘ Responses like these were in keeping with his stance toward American counterculture of the sixties in general. For example , in 1968, when Miłosz was shown as a signatory of an open up letter of protest authored by poet and counterculture physique Allen Ginsberg and published inThe New York Review of Ebooks, Miłosz responded by calling the letter dangerous nonsense inch and requiring that he previously not authorized it.
After eighteen years, Miłosz officially retired from educating in 1978. To mark the occasion, he was awarded a Berkeley Citation, the University of California’s equivalent of the honorary doctorate. However , when his wife, Janina, fell unwell and necessary expensive medical therapy, Miłosz went back to educating seminars.
World War II
Miłosz is at Warsaw when it was swamped as part of the German invasion of Poland in September 1939. Along with colleagues by Polish A radio station, he escaped the city, making his way to Lwów. However , when he learned that Janina had continued to be in Warsaw with her parents, he looked to get a way back. The Soviet breach of Poland thwarted his plans, and, to avo
Like a large number of Poles during the time, to avert notice by simply German government bodies, Miłosz participated in underground activities. For instance , with advanced schooling officially forb > He converted Shakespeare’sAs You Enjoy itand T. H. Eliot’s The Waste Land into Enhance. Along with his good friend, the author Jerzy Andrzejewski, he as well arranged intended for the syndication of his third amount of poetry, titledPoems, under a pseudonym in September 1940. The title page claimed mcdougal was Jan Syruć plus the volume had been published by a fictional press in Lwów in 1939in fact, it may have been the first clandestine book posted in occupied Warsaw. In 1942, Miłosz set up for the publication of the anthology of Polish poets, entitledInvincible Tune: Polish Poems of War Time, by an underground press.
Nevertheless , Miłosz’s riskiest underground wartime activity was obviously a
Despite his willingness to engage in subway activity fantastic vehement opposition to the Nazis, Miłosz d > He as well d > although this individual later belittled the Soviet Red Army for declining to support it when it acquired the opportunity to do this.
As German soldiers began torching Warsaw buildings in August 1944, Miłosz and Janina escaped the city, eventually settling in a village outs
In the preamble to his 1953 bookThe Captive Mind, Miłosz wrote, I do not regret those years in Warsaw, which was, I believe, the most unpleasant spot in the whole of terrorized The european union. Had Then i chosen emigration, my life would certainly have followed a very several course. Nevertheless my understanding of the crimes which The european union has experienced in the twentieth century would be less direct, less cement than this is. Immediately after the war, Miłosz published his fourth poetry collectionRescue; it aimed at his wartime experiences and has some of his most vitally praised job, including the twenty-poem cycle The World, inch composed just like a primer for nae schoolchildren, and the circuit Voices of Poor People. The volume also contains some of his most regularly anthologized poetry, including A Song on the End of the World, Campo Dei Fiori, and A Poor Christian Looks at the Ghetto.
The Olmsted Scholar Plan was founded in the 50s by the George Olmsted Basis (later the George and Carol Olmsted Foundation). Using General Olmsted’s initial $80, 000 scholarhip, the Foundation’s Board of Directors plus the Department of Defense authorized the business of College student Program. The first half a dozen scholars were selected in October, 1959 and started their training in 1960 (See
From 60 through 1970, the program consisted of two Scholars from each service senior high for a total of six annually. You start with the Scholar Class of 1971, this program was broadened to seven Scholars yearly with the further three becoming graduates of ROTC applications.
Since its beginning, the Scholar Program provides encouraged attendance at educational institutions in countries throughout the world. In 1975 the first College student was delivered behind the Iron Curtain when Encolure Bill McKeever (USAF, Ret. ) went to the School of Belgrade. GEN John Abizaid (USA, Ret. ) became the first Scholar to study in Arabic when he attended the University of Jordan in the late 70s. In 1981 LTC Lonnie Keene (USA, Ret. ) became the first Scholar in mainland China in Beijing School, and in 1994 COL Mary Donovan started to be the initial Scholar in Russia, going to Saint Petersburg State School.
Beginning with the Scholar Category of the year 2003, additional funds from Standard Olmsted’s house have allowed the program to expand to approximately 18 participants per year. While the actual number of Scholars in a given year depends on selection of one of the most highly qualified individuals, the nominal distribution can be five Scholars each from your Navy, Armed service and Usaf and 3 from the Sea Corps.
As of yet, over six hundred Scholars including 57 Olmsted Scholar
Guides Committee membership rights and contact information
The AATSEEL Publications Committee consists of fifteen members who also serve staggered three-year terms, each of whom is usually assigned to just one of four book-prize juries corresponding to his / her disciplinary association and qualifications.
All communication for the committee must be addressed to the present chair (term ends Dec. 2021):
Teacher Yuri LevingDepartment of Russian StudiesDalhousie SchoolMcCain Arts, 6135 University Garottere.PO BOX 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada(902) 494-1082Email: [email protected] com
Działalność charytatywna żeńskich zgromadzeń zakonnych watts diecezji stanisławowskiej w latach 1896-1946
Author(s):Iryna Stasiuk /Language(s):Polish /Issue:1/2014
The article shows charitable activity of female religious congregations on the territory of Stanislav diocese. A research of archival documentation and historiographical components allowed the author to establish that in the years 1896–1946 nuns founded a considerable number of orphanages, nursing facilities for older people and people with disabilities. Each of the necessary proper care was offered by the nuns themselves.
Działalność Karola Lewkowicza – przyczynek do powstania orientacji prokrajowej na emigracji
Author(s):Krzysztof Tarka /Language(s):Gloss /Issue:1/2010
Fresh tactic of the PRL (the People’s Republic of Poland) authorities toward Polish emigration was initiated in the middle of 1950’s. The liberalization of the Communism system in Poland in 1956 and hopes for the second stage of the August; simultaneously – disappointment with the Western governmental policies as well as frequently lessening possibilities to change a situation in Central and Far eastern Europe and on the same breathing, growing crisis and interior disunity of the emigration, create a fertile earth for pro-country orientation in exile. One of many form of communist diversion was offering monetary support by PRL’s brains services to people communities which usually opted for effort with the region and that have been fighting the „unbroken away. A regular Odgłosy (Sounds), than renamed Oblicze Tygodnia (The face of the week), modified by the former activist from the Polish Socialist Party – Karol Lewkowicz, was considered to end up being one of this kind of dirty initiatives after the October. In January 1957, Lewkowicz, on his own initiative, came into connection with the Enhance embassy working in london, where through the following discussions, he recommended creating an all-party Gloss organization in-exile (Kongres Polonii w Wielkiej Brytanii, The Polish Congress in Great Britain). He also pointed out a vital necessity for a fresh pro-country paper-in-exile to be edited. Lewkowicz, working on intelligence services’ order, was preparing reviews covering info on not only a politics situation in exile but also regarding personal qualities of particular emigration activists. He was paid regularly for this in return. In the end of Summer 1957 the first issue of Odgłosy was printed. The main purpose of publishing that weekly was going to stop the press monopoly held by „unbroken and what is more it caused some form of crack in the emigration’s environment so aggressive to the PRL authorities. Ostensibly for being self-employed and having an autonomy, actually the Odgłosy made famous an idea of cooperation between the country plus the exile. It also unmasked a harmful activity of the migrants. By publicizing conflicts among particular organizations and included, the editors sow dilemma and aggravated the breakdown of emigration. Lewkowicz burdened that after the October, the communist party in Especially was no for a longer time a foreign firm. He likewise considered to be the sole legitimate one particular the expert from the Vistula country. The Intelligence Assistance had grounds to suspect that Lewkowicz was also by British services, nevertheless the cooperation was continued. In 1966 the command of the MSW (the Ministry of Inner Affairs) finally decided to quit supporting financially the Oblicza Tygodnia because of too high costs of its upkeeping. In addition, the journal was no for a longer time the only pro-country paper in-exile.
Działalność głównego komisarza cywilnego we wrześniu 1939 roku
Author(s):Piotr Cichoracki /Language(s):Polish /Issue:1/2010
The institution in the Chief Civil Commissioner by the Commander in Chief was appointed upon 1 Sept 1939. Its aim was to provide functioning properly of the direct background of the front. This kind of attitude was taken by the voivode from the Polesie Place, Wacław Kostek-Biernacki. Although the functions concerning the activities of a similar unit had been initiated at the outset of the thirties, since the beginning of the war, the unit struggled with problems of organisational, logistic and employees nature. In this connection, and also because of a extremely unfavourable span of war intended for the Polish side, the unit’s activity had an improvisatorial character. One could distinguish three periods of activity. The first was between 1–6 of Sept in Warsaw. At that time, the main issues to deal with were, especially, the efficiency and legal preparations with the Chief Municipal Commissioner Business office to function effectively. Signs of the activity consistent with the assumed aspires of the existence are not found. One other period is a stay in Brest between 7–11 September. Just then a fairly ordered activity was developed. Watts. Kostek- Biernacki issued a regulation for the settlement of issues linked to masses of refugees, with battles against curve and with reconstruction of roads. This individual won a rise in Polish State Police authority in relation to the army. The need to leave Brest by Commander in Chief ‘s staff caused also the departure from the staff from the Chief Civil Commissioner Workplace. On of sixteen September, the regulation reached Kolomyia, moving Vladimir-Volynsky, Lutsk and Tarnopol. During the evacuation, after going out of Vladimir-Volynsky, a brief breach of relations with the Commander in Chief is staff occurred. At that time, T. Kostek-Biernacki interupted in the concerns connected with the members from the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) who had been in prisons in the Tarnopol Region. Then, a turmoil with the government bodies of the Tarnopol Voivodship came about. Prime Ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) Składkowski and probably the Leader in Main were knowledgeable about the conflict. Upon 17 September, he issued an order for Leon Kniaziołucki to fill the post from the chief commissioner. This candidate selection had simply no practical meaning because of Soviet aggression. Information about it almost certainly did not reach the workers of the Main Civil Office Office. Taking into consideration leaving Poland, W. Kostek-Biernacki dissolved any office and entered the Polish-Romanian border.