Social Course And Criminal offenses And Consequence Essay

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The best structure for the essay on crime

Any dissertation should include three parts launch, main physique, and conclusion. They may likewise consist of paragraphs for better understanding whilst reading. And so when you have finally decided on the topic, it really is nice to create an outline it is where all parts of the essay will probably be highlighted.

Here is a free sort of an outline for the essay Correlations of criminal behavior:

1 .Introductionhere you present all the history needed to figure out your ideas, is it doesn’t basis of pursuit. You may also provide some definitions if necessary.

2 .The main bodyto state all your ideas.

  • Genderdiscover who does more crimes, men or women. Try to explain or find answers for problem why.
  • Competition and migrantsexamine persons of which competition is more likely than others committing crimes. As well, explore how do the position of zugezogener influence criminality.
  • Early existenceenumerate which will factors in early life can be associated with committing crimes later on. These can include trauma, family members size and relations, alcoholic beverages and medication addiction inside the family, bullying, low school performance, and others.
  • Religionthere are some studies about how religiosity may influence criminality. Discover whether religion maximize or lower crime, how and so why. Maybe, several religions will vary effects.
  • Political ideologyexplore various political ideologies and how they inspire people to act themselves. Are there any which naturally push persons into assigning a crime?
  • Emotional traitsdescribe how psychological background might influence a person. Illustrate some mental illnesses which might make people extreme and harmful. Find a few statistics to prove your statements.
  • Socioeconomic factorslook at people of which social or economic position are more susceptible to commit a crime, why? Make clear also how a economic situation in family, metropolis, and country may influence criminality. You may write a poverty and crime essay.

3.Summarymake a derivation of all things you have stated. Keep in mind that zero new tips or statements are necessary here.

4.Sourcesadd a list of the sources you have used in your article (if needed).

Gender, Criminal activity And Ethnical Views

There is no doubt that in all societies, response to crimes, particularly serious kinds, is drastically affected by the gender in the defendants or sometimes the gender of the victims. Within societies, woman gender targets and sexuality roles differ from those of males. There are some sorts of crimes that could be expected to always be committed by women, nevertheless there are others that are not. On the other hand, there is no male or female role related to the ex – kinds of offences, or at least not necessarily clear. Alternatively, if a female commits against the law that world does not anticipate her to commit, including killing her children, she will invariably be treated roughly by that society. Society’s expectations depend on the culture and tradition more than the legislation. Since regulations, in general, produce no difference in dealing with criminal offenses on the basis of gender, in practice the situation may be distinct.

Even today in some societies, women are regarded as sexual items and are likely to remain within just male-dominated ideologies such as homemaker and nurturer, subordinate to men. In societies just like Pakistan, girls are considered to be the of men, and domestic assault may be realized as the proper of guys over the women with whom they live. In fact , assault against females by their man relatives is something that may be accepted by society as well as the family if she has been considered to have violated the conventional gender functions in her society. Nagina Bibi, a seventeen yr old girl via Pakistan, was engaged by simply her father to her cousin, but her brother desired her to marry his wife’s sibling. On Apr 14, 99, after her brother noticed her speaking with the relation chosen by way of a father in the street, he and another close friend reportedly attached her which has a rope to a wooden content in their home, sprinkled kerosene over her and set her on fire. The lady was taken up a hospital with melts away on 73% of her body, and after 23 days, she perished. Nagina’s relatives claimed this was as a result of a range explosion, nevertheless she advised doctors that her brother had arranged her burning down because your woman had disobeyed him. In such communities, males think that if a girl is rebellious, then there is certainly nothing morally or legally wrong with beating or maybe killing her. If males do embark on violence, they justifiably assume that they will not end up being prosecuted. In such communities, the bumpy position of women results from social oppression and also economic dependency on men. A woman who have attacks her alleged batterer in these communities is considered to acquire violated not just traditional gender roles of passivity and care-giving, but also a sexual structure that grants or loans men electricity over her. This is certainly a major source of violence against women; as an example, five Pakistani women daily are wiped out, and two women each day, in the region of Punjab alone, will be kidnapped.

Alternatively, it is frequently accepted that murders of male batterers by female victims of domestic assault be cared for more significantly by the legal system and contemporary society. In most societies when a gentleman kills his wife or perhaps his daughter or his sister, it really is acceptable by the public. Although if a woman kills her violent husband, she will become definitely recharged. It is widely considered that ladies who commit crimes have already been perceived as men that have the worst characteristics of females. Lombroso and Ferrero (1985) emphasized that women who devote crimes are seen as genetically more guy than girl, therefore biologically abnormal. Thus females who did not take action according to pre-defined criteria were clinically diagnosed as pathological and needing treatment; these people were to be or Moreover, it is commonly assumed that women who have commit crimes, particularly critical crimes, happen to be either evil or emotionally ill when they commit illegal.

In addition , girl defendants are viewed differently, as it is believed within a few societies that ladies who adapt are natural wives, moms and respectful daughters whom benefit culture. Therefore , if perhaps they commit a crime, they will be categorized because ‘ not nonconforming women may be people who engage in actions associated with men, or individuals who are likely to dedicate crimes. These women, because Bottoms (1996) stated, are doubly damned and doubly deviant. Furthermore, it has been argued that light and dark-colored females sit on different steps on the interpersonal hierarchy. Nooruddin (2006) stated that light women in the united states are generally regarded as more useful than black women, plus they are accorded another type of set of values and tasks than happen to be black girls. Within a lot of societies, white colored women have been completely considered as creatures’ needing protection, although black females have been characterized as sluggish, promiscuous, and irresponsible. As a consequence, white and black females are cared for differently by their society and within the legal system. For example , white girls that themselves’ from chaotic attackers will be treated with leniency, when black females are very likely to be blamed for getting into such a scenario and for it’ on themselves. inch Based on these perceptions, most likely white ladies who kill their batterers will be treated significantly less severely than black kinds if they may have done precisely the same. This point will probably be clear if the relevant instances will be reviewed in the next part of this composition.

Naylor, W. Women’s Offense and Media Coverage: Making Explanations, 95. Oxford College or university Press.

Nooruddin, I. SIGHTLESS JUSTICE: RACE AND GENDER IN THE CASE OPF VIOLENT CRIMINAL OFFENSES. available via: http://psweb.sbs.ohiostate.edu/faculty/nooruddi/research/nooruddin.pg2007.pdf.

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Spohn, C, Gender and Sentencing of Medicine Offenders: Is usually Chivalry Dead? 1999, being unfaithful Criminal Proper rights Policy Review. PP: 365-399.

Spohn, C, Welch, T, and Gruhl, J, Ladies Defendants in Court: The Interaction between Sex and Race in Convicting and Sentencing, 85, 66 Interpersonal Science Quarterly. PP: 178-185.

Stauffer, A. R, Johnson, M. G, Cochran, J. K, Fogel, S. T and Bjerregaard, B, The Interaction Between Victim Contest and Gender on Sentencing Outcomes in Capital Murder Trials: A Further Exploration, 06\, 10 (2) Homicide Studies. PP: 98-117.

Steffensmeier, G, Kramer, M. H, and Streifel, C, Gender and imprisonment decisions, 1993, 31 Criminology. PP: 411-446.

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Teachey, L. Lawyers Submit Recognize of Charm in Yates’s Murder Dedication Case, HOUS. CHRON., April. 4, 2002, available at: http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/special/drownings/.

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Therapist: Arizona Mom Not Ready for Trial, NEWSDAY, Sept. 20, 2001, at A30.

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Williams, M. R and Holcomb, L. H, The Interactive Effects of Victim Contest and Gender on Death Sentence Disparity Findings, 2004, 8 (4) Homicide Studies. PP: 350-376.

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Gender And Courts Practice

In thinking about the effect of sexuality on the take care of defendants inside the criminal justice process, woman offenders were found more likely to be unveiled even before the trial and so they were more unlikely to be sentenced severely. The effect of sexuality in the way that the law and society respond to different kinds of criminal offenses can be obviously seen in courtroom decisions.

To start with, criminality in men was a common characteristic of their normal character, although women’s biologically-determined nature was antithetical to crime. On the other hand, it has been contended that, due to the fact that women are seen as significantly less of a risk to society, when they perform commit a crime, they will be treated leniently. Albonetti (1991) deemed this as you important influence of arrest gender in judges and jury to make lenient decisions; when the offenders are feminine, there should be simply no or significantly less certainty. On the other hand, viewed as even more culpable for their crimes and posing the risk, males would be cared for more roughly. For instance, males are more likely to obtain long-term jail sentences. Yet , some argue that sentencing habits of women offenders demonstrate they are treated harshly. A report printed by the Nationwide Association of Probation Officers emphasized that in year 1994, only 11% of males were jailed for robbery compared to 23% of females. Moreover, 35% of the females who were jailed had not any previous croyance, compared to 12% of males. Also, 53% of women prisoners had been convicted of two or fewer offences compared to 23% of men. You should know behind this kind of hypothesis is that some offences are not anticipated to be dedicated by females. In other words, they may be observed to become atypical of offending females.

Because of the fact that it can be considered inappropriate for females to commit violent acts such as armed theft, when they accomplish that, it was discovered that they had been dealt with more punitively. The thesis which has been used here is that of the evil woman, which implies that the female has affected her position expectations simply by committing an offense which is not seen as appropriate to offending women. Thus, they can be treated more negatively. Inside the cases of Sarah Thornton, who is a female, and Ur. V. Palmer, who is a male, the reality were mainly the same, nevertheless the outcomes in court had been different. Dorothy was convicted and received a life sentence for the criminal offense of murdering her bad husband. She argued it turned out an accident; the lady sharpened a kitchen cutlery, pointed that at her violent hubby, expecting him to knock it away, and by accident stabbed and killed him. This was interpreted as a sign of her intention to kill him. She told one of her friends that I will kill him a few several weeks before the episode, which was not treated as an expression of exasperation, but as an indication of intent. Your woman stated that, I did not walk in there with the goal of stabbing him. I would like to show him how far he had driven me personally. In contrast, in the case of R. V. Palmer, the appellant stabbed his wife and killed her. He argued that he brought a knife through the kitchen only to frighten her, but unintentionally killed her. Unlike Thornton, he was incurred with drug possession, not tough. Then, the Appeals Courtroom reduced his sentence from seven years to five. Thornton, in the meantime, continues to provide her lifestyle sentence.

Furthermore, Heidensohn (1985) argues that extreme harshness is experienced against women in the courts because they are, as offenders, very rare because of their low levels of crime and the rarity of ever appearing in courtroom; therefore , it is likely that more of all of them will be found guilty for their offences. He believes that women happen to be understood less than men by the courts, in terms of both their culture and family framework; therefore , presumptions lead to stereotypes about appropriate behaviour, and by offending against their classic sex tasks, they are seen as the two rule breakers and role deviants. inch

Among women themselves, it has been located that divorced and segregated women received relatively severe sentences, while did girls that came from deviant family qualification. This is due to the reality these girls are not regarded as respectable. Being a concrete case in point, in the situations of Khoua Her and Andrea Yates, there was a general belief that they were remedied differently by criminal justice system in the USA because of their experience. Both of these girls are American citizens, but they came from different backgrounds. Khoua Her was obviously a twenty-four-year-old functioning mother segregated from her husband and an zugezogener who had been residing in the United States for many years. She was sentenced to fifty years imprisonment for the second-degree murder of her half a dozen children. Donna Yates was a married, thirty-six-year-old, white, middle-class, fundamentalist Christian homemaker. She drowned her five children in a tub. She was found guilty of two capital murder fees and not doing killing her other 3 children on grounds of insanity. Her lawyer argued that she was experiencing postpartum depression at the time of the murders. In the end, the court recommended a sentence of life in prison rather than the death penalty. Her legal representatives lodged a great appeal and won. She’ll now be entitled to parole in 2041. The reduction in fees on appeal has been seen as an degree of flexibility in the abuse of her crimes.

In addition , it is important, to be able to consider just how gender affects the way which the law responds to different criminal activity, to know whether victim sexuality interacts with offender gender. It has been found that there was interactive effect among victim male or female and culprit gender, in that males found guilty of victimizing females had been punished even more harshly than any other patient gender/offender male or female combination. Curry et approach (2004) located that the lengthiest sentences are meted out to male offenders who victimize females. In addition, in the cases where white females had been victims of homicide, it is found that offenders were more likely to obtain death content. Also, the latest research in the united states found that in most cases the place that the victim was obviously a white feminine, sentences were harsher than in other cases. Nooruddin (2006) stated that the sexual stratification speculation argues that relations among black males and white-colored women disobey the major group’s power most directly. Appropriately, abuse of white females by dark-colored men is recognized as particularly heinous in the USA, and thus treated even more severely. Thus, a white colored female who reacts against a dark-colored male batterer would be seen as most worth by society, causing the fact that she would be treated least harshly by the courts. As well, if a light male batterer is killed by a black female, she could be cured harshly by the court, in accordance with such a hypothesis. Nevertheless , some research found no direct effect of victim male or female on length of sentence. It is often stated that victim sexuality may not impact the chances of imprisonment, particularly for violent crime, however it may possess a significant impact on sentencing span.

Theories Of Crime: Strain, Social Control And Existence Course

Part 7: Radicalizing Orthodox Hypotheses of Crime: Strain, Sociable Control and Life Program Strain theory is identified as the cause of offense due to the cultural class or environment where a person gets older in. In our society, persons strive to attain wealth, education, materialistic belongings and power. Due to the environment lower cultural class individuals are born in to, they are unable to obtain these types of aspirations through legal means. Feelings of frustration bring about strain and may cause these folks

Urban versus Rural Ers >Exactly where we live also makes a difference for the likelihood of doing crime. We saw earlier that big cities have a much larger homicide level than small towns. This kind of trend is available for chaotic crime and property criminal offense more generally. Urban areas possess high criminal offenses in part since they are poor, yet poverty independently does not completely explain the urban-rural big difference in offense, since many rural areas happen to be poor as well. A key element that talks about the higher criminal offenses of cities is all their greater inhabitants density (Stark 1987). Once many people live close together, they come in contact with one other more often. This kind of fact ensures that teenagers and young adults have an overabundance peers to influence them to commit offense, and it also means that potential crooks have more focuses on (people and homes) for criminal activity. Urban areas also provide many pubs, convenience stores, and also other businesses that could become objectives for potential criminals, and bars, taverns, and other adjustments for consuming can certainly become adjustments where emotions flare and violence develops.

Interactionism, Social Class and Offense

The main piece of sociological research which has especially examined the relationship between the authorities and the cultural class qualifications of offenders is Aaron Cicourel’s and The Arbitration of Justice’ (1968)

Cicourelcontended that it was the meanings held by police officers and teen officers that explained so why most delinquents come from working class experience, and that the technique of defining a young person as a overdue was intricate, involving largely two levels of interactions based on pieces of meanings held by participants.

The 1st stageis the decision by the authorities to stop and interrogate an individual. This decision is based on meanings held by the police of what is and Whether or not the police stop and question an individual depends on where the conduct is taking place and on how a police see the individual(s). Whether behavior is deemed to be will depend on the place that the behaviour is taking place, by way of example an inner city, a playground, a region. If a young person has a demeanour like that of a delinquent’ then the law enforcement are more likely to both equally interrogate and arrest the face.

The other Stageis that the young person is paid to a teen delinquent police officer. This officer will have an image of a delinquent’ in the mind. Elements associated with a normal delinquent consist of being of dishevelled physical appearance, having poor posture, speaking in slang etc . It follows thatCicourelidentified that most delinquents come from doing work class qualification.

When midsection class delinquents are caught they are less likely to be recharged with the offence as they do not fit the style of a delinquent’. Likewise, their parents are more in a position to present themselves since respectable and reasonable people from an excellent neighbourhood and co-operate completely with the teen officers, guaranteeing them that their child is actually remorseful.

Therefore, the middle class delinquent is more likely to be defined as ill rather than criminal, while having unintentionally strayed in the path of righteousness just the once and having a genuine chance of reforming.

Cicourel primarily based his study on two Californian towns, each having a population of approximately 100, 1000. both experienced similar social characteristics yet there was a tremendous difference in the amount of delinquents in each city. Cicourel argued that this big difference can only always be accounted for by the size, company, policies and practices from the juvenile and police bureaus. It is the societal reaction that affects the rate of delinquency. It is the firms of sociable control that produce delinquents.

Correct Realism/ Underclass Theory and Crime

Proper Realists argue with Marxists Right Realists indicate the underclass as being accountable for a disproportionate amount of crime in society.

Charles Murray plus the Underclass

Charles Murray argued that changes to family members structure was responsible for much of the increase in the crime price in the 1970s and 80s he mainly attributes the expansion of criminal offense because of agrowing underclassor rabble’ who are defined by their deviant actions and are not able to socialise their children properly. The kids of the underclass fail to master self-control and also fail to understand difference between right and wrong.

The underclass has increased because of raising welfare habbit. Murray states that progressively generous well being benefits because the 1960s possess led to a great number of to become dependent upon the state. This has led to the decline of marriage and the growth of lone parent people, because ladies can now just eat benefits rather than having to marry to have children. This does mean that males no longer have to take responsibility intended for supporting their loved ones, so they will no longer need to work.

In accordance to Murray, lone mothers are inadequate agents of socialisation, particularly for boys. Missing fathers mean than boys lack paternal discipline and appropriate men role models. As a result, young males use other, late role models on the street to find status through crime instead of supporting their families through a constant job.

Raising crime is definitely effectively a consequence of children growing up between delinquent, deviant criminal adults which creates a perfect crimogenic environment.

Unemployment and Crime recently available comparison some. 3 million offenders in britain and Wales whose brands appeared in court records or perhaps the Police Countrywide Computer with separate rewards records kept by the Division for Work and Pensions revealed that more than 1 . 1 million in the 5. 2 million people claiming out-of-work benefits a new criminal record, or perhaps 22 %. This means that those people who are claiming lack of employment benefit are definitely more than twice as likely to have got a criminal history as those who find themselves not. (Source: More than a sixth of people upon unemployment rewards have a criminal record. )

NEETS and Crimeis short for young people outdated between 16 and twenty four Not in Education, Work or Schooling. They 1st came to the government’s attention in the mid 2000s whenever they numbered 1 ) 1m. During that time, a study by the Department to get Education and Skills (DfES) conservatively approximated that each fresh NEET falling out of education at 16 will cost taxpayers an average of 1000 during their life time, with the most severe costing more than 1000 apiece.

Their particular impact on crime, public health and antisocial actions was so marked which the study discovered that a one 157, 000-strong cohort of 16 to 18-year-old NEETs would expense the country an overall total of billion by the time they passed away prematurely in about 2060. They are, says the study, twenty-two times more likely to be teen mothers; 50% more likely to have problems with poor health; 60 per cent more likely to be involved with medicines and more than 20 occasions more likely to turn into criminals.

The Reform Of Hammurabi ‘s Code

contributes to the stratification of sociable classes and mistreatment of minorities, and the like. The business of Hammurabi’s code helped bring purchase and equality into culture through the make an effort to implement a moral regular. An eyesight for an eye is actually a fair abuse for the committed crime. But not all of Hammurabi’s requirements follow fit. The unique codes enforced the social couche that had been in place in Babylonia, modern the section between the different social teams. Although Hammurabi’s

A Perfect World, Economic Inequality

deviated from based on an individual’s zip code. If within this perfect globe crime do exist, the ramifications of criminal acts would be window blind to competition, wealth, or family name. Unfortunately, the illustration of the perfect globe is not even close to it, really non-existent. The world we reside in today abounds with disparities. There are special rules and exceptional laws for many people particularly when it comes to crime and abuse. Everyone is not really created equal. Culture looks to the wealthy and frown

Cultural >Findings on sociable class variations in crime are less clear than they are for gender or age differences. Arrests statistics and much exploration indicate that poor people are much more likely than wealthier people to commit avenue crime. However , some college students attribute the higher arrests of poor people to social class bias against them. Despite this possibility, the majority of criminologists could possibly agree that social course differences in felony offending happen to be unmistakable (Harris & Shaw, 2000, g. 138). Highlighting this summary, one sociologist has possibly noted, with tongue only partly in cheek, that social researchers know they need to not stroll the roadways at night in a few parts of city or even to park there and that areas of cities that frighten them are not upper-income neighborhoods (Stark, 1987, l. 894). Hence social category does are most often associated with avenue crime, with poor individuals doing a lot more than their fair share.

Explanations of the relationship focus on the effects of poverty, which, because the next section will talk about further, is said to produce anger, frustration, and economic need and to become associated with a purpose for esteem and with poor raising a child skills and also other problems that help to make children very likely to commit antisocial behavior whenever they reach teenage years and further than. These effects combine to acquire poor people to get more likely than wealthier individuals to commit avenue crime, regardless if it is true that most poor people do not devote street crime at all.

Even though the poor are more liable than the wealthy to make street criminal offense, it is also accurate that the wealthy are much much more likely than the poor to devote white-collar crime, which, because argued previously, can be considerably more harmful than street crime. If we consider both avenue crime and white-collar offense, then right now there does not is very much a cultural class-crime romance, since the poor have higher rates with the former and the wealthy have got higher rates of the other.

The Consequence of Malvolio Essay

Shakespeare’s stratification in the vices that the person will take upon him or herself. With this kind of stratification, Shakespeare allocates Malvolio’s vices of pride, usurping the interpersonal order, and dour nature as the worst of character imperfections, and that is why Malvolio receives the harshest punishment. Before reviewing the abuse that Malvolio endures, you need to examine his flaws and offenses. His arrival inside the play is to use criticism of Feste, and this initial condescending tone and demeanor

Male or female And Law enforcement officials Practice

In dealing with different kinds of offences, some studies have advised that the offenders’ character and attitude are essential which impact on the decision created by the police. For instance , women had been found to be more likely to demonstrate behavior that the police would not consider while offensive. It has been considered in numerous studies in the UK and in the united states that females see the police as folks who will help these people, while guys see these questions more negative light. The police simply classify women because non-serious and nonpersistent offenders; therefore , they can be less likely to become arrested by police. It is often demonstrated that law enforcement deal with girls more leniently than they actually with men; also, it has been found that ladies are cautioned rather than arrested for indictable offences often than guys.

In accordance with the chivalry hypothesis, on the one hand, females are in need of security because they are viewed as physically and emotionally poor, and are as a result considered to be guarded by the criminal justice system rather than penalized. On the other hand, guys are considered to get in a protection position for women and therefore should not be expected to damage them. Appropriately, if they are doing so , they may receive very punitive phrases. In fact , many researches possess supported this kind of hypothesis by finding that guys were remedied harshly in comparison with women. Yet , although the sex of an arrest plays an important role in police decisions, it has been argued that the fate of women within the CJS in regard to crimes depends upon how very well a woman may represent the traditional stereotypical feminine role. Lloyd (1995) explained that women frequently use all their for their advantage, rendering it very difficult to dispute equal rights for equally sexes. In addition, the nature of the offence has been found more effective and close to it the offender sexual intercourse was located weak. For instance , as women, prostitutes lamented about staying treated seriously and being subjects of harassment. Likewise, Heidensohn (1994) has found that rape victims were being disbelieved and aggressively questioned by the police.

In addition , it has been regarded as that law enforcement officials decisions were significantly inspired by the factors of race and class. In one case a police officer stated, We had one Irish guy living with a black lady, she’s acquired a baby simply by someone else, now she’s wanting his baby. She planned to go out at nighttime He objected. Your house was a idea. I wiped my foot as I walked out. That’s how poor it was. Really quite evident she will not want to know. He whacked her and we did not arrest him. She was making his life Heck! Nothing to end up being gained via arresting him.

It is important to bear in mind, in addition, that women whom experience domestic violence do not often record it towards the police. It has been found the fact that police tend to be contacted while the very latter. The reasons to get women’s peace and quiet have been widely recognized in the books. For instance, women are disheartened from revealing from thoughts of disgrace and via a perception that the authorities will do very little to help. In the UK, it has been discovered according to research that only 74% of cases are reported to the law enforcement officials by the patients. Furthermore, it is often found that witnesses act in response negatively to the crimes they may have witnessed. For instance , Kitty Genovese of New York was murdered by her husband, observed by witnesses who believed it to be none of their business.

Sociological Perspective Of Punishment Can be Economic Determinism And >1459 Phrases | 6 Pages

Sociological perspective of punishment. [online] http://www.umass.edu/legal/Benavides/Fall2005/397G/Readings%20Legal%20397%20G/8%20David%20Garland.pdf. Sold at: http://www.umass.edu/legal/Benavides/Fall2005/397G/Readings%20Legal%20397%20G/8%20David%20Garland.pdf [Accessed twenty Apr. 2015]. The second justification for abuse are financial determinism and class curiosity. Marxist see punishment in relation to the economic structure of society by which it takes place and to the students system, which as a

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