Case Studies for Basics in Epidemiology

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Availability of data and materials

All manuscripts must include an ‘Availability of data and materials’ statement. Data availability transactions should include information concerning where data supporting the results reported in the document can be found which includes, where suitable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the analyze. By info we imply the little dataset that would be necessary to translate, replicate and make upon the findings reported in the content. We recognise it is not always possible to share research info publicly, for example when individual privacy could possibly be compromised, and in such situations data availableness should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for get.

Data supply statements usually takes one of the subsequent forms (or a combination of several if required for multiple datasets):

  • The datasets produced and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT NET LINK TO DATASETS]
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Hao Unces, AghaKouchak A, Nakhjiri And, Farahmand A. Global included drought monitoring and conjecture system (GIDMaPS) data units. figshare. 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.853801

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The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study can be found in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT NET LINK TO DATASETS]. [Reference number]

If you wish to co-submit a data take note describing your data to be printed inBMC Research Records, that you can do so at our submission portal. Info notes support open data and help creators to adhere to funder procedures on info sharing. Co-published data remarks will be from the research document the data support (example).

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Other index patients

  • Mary Mallon (a.k.a. Typho
  • The first recorded victim of the Ebola virus was a 44-year-old schoolteacher named Mabalo Lokela, who died on 8 September 1976, 14 days after symptom onset.
  • 64-year-old Liu Jianlun, a Guangdong doctor, transmitted SARS internationally by infecting other super-spreaders during a stay in the Hong Kong Metropole Hotel in 2003.
  • A baby in the Lewis House at 40 Broad Street is cons
  • Édgar Enrique Hernndez may be patient zero of the 2009 flu pandemic. He recovered, and a bronze statue has been erected in his honor. Maria Adela Gutierrez, who contracted the virus about the same time as Hernndez, became the first officially confirmed fatality.
  • One-year-old Emile Ouamouno is believed to be patient zero in the 2014 Ebola ep

Physical Exam

W. L. is usually well-appearing although obese and is in simply no acute relax. A limited physical exam reveals:

Weight: 302 lb; height 5′1″

Blood pressure: 130/78 mmHg using a large adult cuff

Pulse 88 bpm; respirations 22 per minute

Lungs: clear to prospection bilaterally with no wheezing, rales, or rhonchi

Lower extremities +1 pitting edema bilaterally; pulses great

B. L. reports that on the days her feet swell the most, she is effective and in an upright position throughout the day. Swelling worsens the whole day, but by next morning they are skinny again. She says that your woman makes the decision to take extra furosemide tablet if her swelling is definitely excessive and painful around lunch time; taking diuretic afterwards in the time prevents her from sleeping because of night time urination.

Specialized medical and immunological manifestations in 151 SLE patients residing in Dubai

The case study demonstrates the principles educated in Spiel 13: Cohort Studies.

The authors analyzed the specialized medical and immunological manifestations of systemic laupus erythematosus (SLE) in a cohort of 151 patients going to the Rheumatology Clinic in Dubai Clinic between January 2002 and January 2007 to gain better understanding of SLE in China. The female to male rate was twenty. 5: you, and the imply age was 35. a few years (0. 9). The mean grow older at disease onset was 28. 9 years (0. 8), and mean disease duration 6. 7 years (0. 4). The 5-year your survival rate inside our cohort was 94%. The most commone clinical manifestations were osteoarthritis (88%), haematological abnormalities (61. 6%), and malar break outs (60. 3%). Leucopenia, fever, hair loss, and proteinuria were also observed in about 50% of the patients. Anaemia was found in 44. 3% of the cohort, but haemolytic anaemia was found in only 9. 9%. Photosensitive break outs was seen in 43% of patients, and 30. a few and twenty-seven. 2% from the cohort got serositis and mouth ulcers, respectively. Vasculitis was observed in 19. 2% of patients, and neuropsychiatric manifestations (15. 9%), discoid lupus lesions (12. 6%), and human brain infarcts (13. 2%) were infrequent. Subacute cutaneous laupus (6%) was also uncommon. Anti-nuclear antibodies were discovered in 98%, anti-double trapped DNA antibodies in 88. 7%, anti-Sm antibodies in 19. 7%, anti-RNP in 40. 4%, anti-Ro antibodies in 52. 3%, and anti-La antibodies in nineteen. 8%. Anti-cardiolipin IgM and IgG had been detected in 25. three or more and 22. 4%, correspondingly. This study suggests that the clinical top features of Arabs with SLE moving into Dubai resemble the medical features of their counterparts consist of Arab countries and in American countries. The high frequency of great anti-Ro antibodies among our Arab individuals probably displays a feature that is frequently seen in SLE patients of Middle Far eastern origin.

Summarized from AlSaleh J, Jassim V, ElSayed M, Saleh N, Harb D: Clinical and immunological manifestations in 151 SLE patients moving into Dubai. Laupus 2008; seventeen; 62. Full Text Document

Values approval and consent to participate

Manuscripts reporting research involving man participants, human being data or perhaps human cells must:

  • include a affirmation on ethics approval and consent (even where the requirement for approval was waived)
  • include the term of the ethics committee that approved the research and the committee’s reference number if appropriate

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Should your manuscript would not report about or involve the use of any kind of animal or human info or cells, please point out Not applicable in this section.

Criteria

BMC Infectious Diseaseswelcomes well-described reviews of circumstances that include the subsequent: Unreported or unusual unwanted side effects or negative interactions regarding medications. Unexpected or unusual presentations of any disease. New associations or perhaps variations in disease processes. Presentations, diagnoses and/or administration of new and emerging diseases. An unexpected affiliation between conditions or symptoms. An unexpected function in the course of seeing or dealing with a patient. Results that shed new light on the conceivable pathogenesis of the disease or perhaps an adverse impact.

Case information submitted toBMC Infectious Diseaseswill need to make a contribution to medical knowledge and should have educational benefit or emphasize the need for a big change in medical practice or diagnostic/prognostic techniques.BMC Contagious Diseaseswill not consider circumstance reports explaining preventive or therapeutic concours, as these generally require better evidence.

Experts should identify how the circumstance report is usually rare or unusual and its educational and/or clinical merits in the covering letter that will go along with the submitting of the manuscript. Case record submissions will be assessed by Editors and will be sent intended for peer review if considered appropriate for the journal.

Case reports ought to include relevant great and unfavorable findings via history, examination and investigation, and can include scientific photographs, supplied these are with a statement that written agreement to publish was obtained from the patient(s). Case reports should include an up-to-date overview of all earlier cases during a call. Authors will need to follow the TREATMENT guidelines as well as the CARE directory should be offered as yet another file.

Experts should seek written and signed consent to publish the data from the patient(s) or their particular guardian(s) prior to submission. The submitted manuscript must incorporate a statement that the consent was obtained inside the consent to publish section since detailed in our editorial policies.

Authors who need help lodging and curating data may want to consider publishing their data to Springer Nature’s Research Data Support or contacting our Exploration Data Support Helpdesk. Springer Nature’s Research Data Support provides info deposition and curation to help authors stick to good practice in sharing and archiving of research info, and can be seen via an online form. The services provide secure and private submitter of data data, which are curated and maintained by the Springer Nature Exploration Data crew for open public release, in agreement while using submitting author. These solutions are provided in partnership with figshare. Checks are accomplished as part of a submission screening process to make certain researchers who also should make use of a specific community-endorsed repository are advised of the greatest option for posting and storage their info. Use of Study Data Support is optionally available and does not suggest or make sure a manuscript will be recognized.

Explanation

An article that describes and interprets a person case, generally written as a detailed story. Case reviews often identify:

  • Unique cases that cannot be the result of known illnesses or syndromes
  • Cases that present an important variation of a disease or condition
  • Cases that show unexpected events that may yield fresh or useful information
  • Cases in which one individual has several unexpected conditions or disorders

Case reports are considered the minimum of facts, but they are as well the initially line of evidence, because they are wherever new issues and concepts emerge. Because of this , they form the base of the pyramid. An excellent case record will be crystal clear about the value of the remark being reported.

If multiple case studies show anything similar, the next thing might be a case-control analyze to determine if you have a relationship between the relevant variables.

Declarations

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  • Ethics approval and agreement to get involved
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  • Authors’ contributions
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If any of the portions are not tightly related to your manuscript, please include the heading and write ‘Not applicable’ for this section.

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