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Ageism: Causes, Effects and Suggestion
Kunda (1999) noted that folks have a tendency if they perceive others in cultural settings, to automatically classify them in to three main dimensions: competition, age and sex (as cited in Nelson, 2005, p. ix). Barrow and Smith (1979) noted that just a small percentage of assumptive and empirical research within just psychology continues to be directed towards understanding ageism (while most of the research has centered on the various other two ‘isms': racism and sexism) (as cited in Nelson, 2005, p. ix). Butler (1969) coined the word ‘ageism' describing it as being comparative to other instances of bigotry (e. g. sexism and racism) whereby this individual defined this as people systematically stereotyping and discriminating others within the basis that they can be old (as cited in Angus & Reeve, 2006). Nowadays, the notion is more freely defined as 1 discriminating against or getting prejudicial (in a positive or perhaps negative manner) towards any age category (Angus & Reeve, 2006). Splendour may be defined as a set of procedures which leads to a new individual or perhaps group staying marginalized (Thompson, 2005, p. 3). Whilst prejudice may be defined as 1 having a unfavorable attitude about other people because of the group they are really a member of (Holt et al., 2012, p. 539).
1 possible reason for why there has not recently been much attention paid to ageism is the fact that demonstrating age misjudgment is probably probably the most socially prevalent, overlooked and institutionalized types of prejudice found worldwide – particularly in the United States (Nelson, 2004, s. ix). Intended for e. g. think returning to the last period you bought a birthday cards for a friend/family member who had been over the age of 50 which implied some sort of metal physical decline or had an " over the hill” theme irrespective of being done within a supposedly hilarious way (Thompson, 2005, s. 16; Nelson, 2004, s. ix). As research in ageism can be sparse and this it is a prevalent form a social prejudice, this composition will make an effort to identify the causes and outcomes of ageism as well as placing forward some recommendations which may help to better this " ism”. The Causes of Ageism
1 interesting and defining characteristic of ageism, is that age, unlike sexual and competition, signifies a category in which young people probably will grow old (provided they do not perish at a young age) (Nelson, 2004, l. x). Because of this, it seems quiet strange that young people might demonstrate prejudice towards people who they themselves will at some point become like (Nelson, 2005, p. x). A number of explanations as to what triggers ageism had been put forward and we will look at the subsequent three: stereotypes, terror management theory and social identity theory. Stereotypes
Harding, Proshansky, Kutner, and Chein (1969, p. 4) defined a stereotype to be " a belief that is simple, badly grounded, by least partly inaccurate, and held with considerable confidence by many people” (as reported in MacKie, 1973, l. 432). All of us use stereotypes as intellectual structures to support our targets and beliefs regarding the features of individuals belonging to different sociable groups and whether or not they will be accurate, the stereotypes effect our interpersonal behaviour (Nelson, 2004, p. 4). The stereotypes which have been established relating to ageism are getting to be so historical in the awareness we have regarding human your life that they have now become unquestioned beliefs (Angus & Reeve, 2006). When you see people, you categorize these individuals into race, age and sex (Nelson, 2005). We have learned to categorize people very well and it has become a pivotal element to our social perception (Nelson, 2005). Categorization can lead to stereotyping and as Ormrod (2000) established, stereotypes have three understanding characteristics: they are simple, rigid and erroneous (Nelson. 2005; as mentioned in Bowd, 2003).
Hummert (1990) hired 80 undergrad students in order to identify positive and unfavorable stereotypes associated with the...
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