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A Levels

 A Amounts Essay

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1 . To what degree had Africa Americans produced progress to equality in the period 1945 to 1957?

Progress

• Education and actions of NAACP and Supreme Court

- Brown decision 1954 – overturned Plessey v Ferguson - Activities of NAACP in other education cases (eg Sweatt v Painter) -- Role of Thurgood Marshall, main lawyer in NAACP

- Substantial Court even more favourable to civil rights after appointment of Earl Warren because Chief Proper rights • Army and other actions of Truman

- Business Order to desegregate military 1948

- Truman entrusted report ‘To Secure these types of Rights' 1947 with tips for improved detrimental rights - Generally Truman helped to awaken USA's conscience to civil legal rights issues • Transport

-- Montgomery Shuttle bus Boycott (explain why it was successful) -- Browder v Gayle 1956 (court circumstance which proved that segregation on Montgomey buses was illegal)

Lack of progress

• Restrictions to progress in education and continued segregation - issues in improving Brown (in fact, not fully unplaned till early 70s) -- Brown II – ‘all deliberate speed'

- Very little Rock 1957

• Limits to progress below Truman

- statement ‘To Secure these Rights' achieved tiny concrete modify - resistance from Truman in Congress and particularly via Southern Democrats (‘Dixiecrats') • Continued physical violence and violence towards blacks

- lynchings rose after Brown decision – eg Emmet Right up until 1955 - Southern Chiaro

• Extended discrimination consist of areas, specifically voting privileges

2 . For what reason was improvement towards detrimental rights intended for African People in the usa slow in the period 1945 to 1955? • Competitors to progress from Congress – remember that improvement was determined by all several branches of government supporting transform (ie Leader, Congress and Supreme Court) - The southern part of Democrats (Dixiecrats) and Strom Thurmond

• Distraction pertaining to President Truman

- Begin of Cold War

-- Korean Warfare (1950-3)

-- Need to earn racist light votes in South

• Lack of Presidential will – especially with Eisenhower - very little sympathy – explain his background (eg Republican) -- lack of enforcement of Dark brown

- only reluctantly intervened in Very little Rock

-- weak civil rights Serves (1957 and 1960)

• Effect of the Cold Warfare and McCarthyism

• Atmosphere of physical violence and intimidation in the Southern region - resulted in fear in black community in the To the south and lack of willingness to protest intended for change - eg Emmet Till

• Shortcomings from the civil rights movement

- no mass movement to get civil legal rights

- technique was court docket based and so unlikely to win well-known support - no moving black figurehead

- improbable to gain great media coverage

3, How come was the city rights movement able to become successful between 1954 and 65? (NB this is certainly a crucial issue which could end up being asked in a number of different ways therefore you need to have seriously detailed expertise on it) • management and part of Martin Luther King (see responses from mock) • strategies of nonviolence leading to great media coverage and raising public support - clarify King's strategy

- offer examples of effective campaigns – Greensboro sit-ins, Birmingham, Selma • Usa president support

- activities of Kennedy: helped obtain King produced from prison in 1960; promoted municipal rights costs in 1963 - actions of Manley: concerned with JFK legacy; pushed for 1964 and 65 Acts • Support from Congress (so, now most branches of government were supporting civil privileges – distinction this with 50s) • Increased unanimity of city rights activity in this period - black and white participation (eg 03 on Washington) - prior to emergence of Black...

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